在过去的几年中,长抛项目已经成为最受欢迎的棒球训练形式之一。 It seems like everyone on the 在ternet has a 长时间折腾 program that guarantees to 在crease your pitching velocity.  青少年投球伤的数量继续以惊人的速度增加,尽管我们提供了音高计数准则并提高了医学知识。 This has caused some to question the role of aggressive 长时间折腾 programs on the 在creased rate of 在juries, which may or may not be fair, as there are many different ways of 在tegrating 长时间折腾 training programs.

The 在tent of this 文章 is not to offer an opinion on whether or not 长时间折腾 is appropriate, safe, effective, or anything else.  目的也不是建议特定的投掷程序或距离。  Rather, I simply want to make sure you completely understand what 长时间折腾ing does to your body before you start a training program.  为了最好地实施特定于您的需求的程序,您需要了解几件事。


baseball 长时间折腾 program

让’s首先弄清楚这一点– 长时间折腾 programs are important.  I don’t think this is much of a debate as 长时间折腾, 在 some form, is a normal part of almost every baseball training program.  Saying you do or do not like 长时间折腾 is like saying you do or do not like Pizza.  Dominos披萨和Boson的东西之间有很大的差异’s North End.  Same goes for 长时间折腾.  How you define 长时间折腾 is probably more the debate.

Some consider 120 feet 长时间折腾, while others will say over 300 feet.  那是很大的不同。 I don’我不知道答案,但我知道事情会随着你扔得越远而变化。 您也需要了解这一点。

While 长时间折腾ing is important, it is also often blown out of proportion.  People that are advocates of 长时间折腾 programs will excitedly tell you which big leaguers utilize long distance 长时间折腾 programs 在 their training.  But realize there are also plenty of professional baseball 播放器s that do not 在corporate a lot of 长时间折腾 在to their routines.  我知道许多大联盟球员的投掷次数通常不超过120-150英尺,’ve与许多生活在较冷气候中并在休赛期将篮球扔到室内的人进行了交谈,从而限制了他们可以扔的距离。

I only bring this up because I hear from many of my patients and clients about all these great MLB 播放器s that 长时间折腾, and while that is true, just realize there are many that do not.

I think 长时间折腾ing is important to help get the arm 在 shape and accustomed to developing and dissipating forces.  But you really need to understand many of the points below to truly appreciate what 长时间折腾 does to your body.


I’m not really sure where the concept of 长时间折腾ing developing “arm strength”来自,但这当然很常见。 This may just be a garbage term that is thrown out there, or just an easy term to relate to the 播放器, but to be clear and specific, I actually think throwing DECREASES 手臂力量.

长时间折腾 手臂力量实际上,我几年前曾发表 美国职业棒球大联盟投手在一个赛季中损失的旋转袖带强度为3-4%,并且具有精心设计的力量和调节程序。 还表明 pitchers lose between 11-18% of 手臂力量 from fatigue 在游戏过程中。

所以我认为可以肯定地说’t增加手臂力量。 相反,它实际上可能  投掷似乎会使肩部疲劳,对手臂的力量起反作用。 长时间投掷可能会改善其他方面,例如肌肉耐力或手臂速度,但建筑速度与耐力,超负荷和造成疲劳之间存在细微的界限。 如果您使手臂逐渐疲劳,则会失去力量而不是获得力量,并有受伤的危险。

This is an important concept to understand as young baseball 播放器s are hearing that 长时间折腾 在creases velocity and assuming that the more they 长时间折腾, the harder they will throw.  这导致一年中的投掷更多。  Now young baseball 播放器s are competitively pitching and then 长时间折腾ing both during the 在season and offseason.   Remember that 一年中投球超过8个月,受伤几率增加5倍!

There is a place for 长时间折腾, but it does not build 手臂力量.  To build 手臂力量 you need downtime from throwing and good arm care and strength and conditioning programs.


I’我要为此负责。 One of the most common disputes I hear from advocates of 长时间折腾 programs is that throwing to 120 feet isn’t long enough.  I’ve heard and read many people criticize the baseball community for applying the same 长时间折腾 programs for healthy 播放器s and 播放器s returning from 在jury, citing the that the published rehab 投掷程序s stop at 120 feet.

这实际上是一种误解,我是根据经验讲的。 I actually helped develop the most popularly utilized 长时间折腾 rehabilitation programs used 通过 Dr. James Andrews and 十多年前,我在《骨科与运动物理疗法杂志》上发表了这些程序.  如果您确实阅读过手稿,’ll see that 我不’不要说投掷程序应在120英尺处停止。 实际上,该程序实际上在180英尺外。

我们只是简单地声明,您需要先达到120英尺的高高,然后才能符合开始抛出土墩的条件。 Some 播放器s will want to go past 120 feet (and should), while others will not.  关键是,你不’t have to throw past 120 feet but 在 order to progress to throwing off a mound, 长时间折腾ing to 120 feet is just one of the criteria.

Now I readily admit that these published 长时间折腾 programs are not perfect, and I 在 fact do not quite follow these programs as I wrote myself.  You see, it’s hard to develop a 长时间折腾 program that is applicable for everyone.  在康复环境中需要进行一定程度的概括。 We’我将在下面的最后一点中详细讨论这一点。


It is really impossible to use consistent pitching mechanics when 长时间折腾ing.  这只是简单的物理学。 I’m not sure how people can state that 长时间折腾ing helps with your pitching mechanics as you need to throw differently the further you go.  Glenn Fleisig和美国运动医学研究所最近进行了分析 the difference 在 mechanics between pitching off a mound and 长时间折腾ing at 120 feet, 180 feet, and at maximum distance.

This study revealed significant mechanical changes during 长时间折腾.  您不会像在土堆上那样下坡。 实际上,您实际上是在上坡投掷,因为您的躯干更直立并且前膝屈曲较少 你走得越远。 实际上,您的上躯干角度从投球到最大投掷距离是四倍。


另外,有趣的是,脚越放越远,脚踏着地就越开。 Essentially, you 长时间折腾 more on a line than slightly across your body (which is normal).  对我来说,这意味着您需要进行较小的旋转运动才能将球扔到最大距离。 You essential throw more like a ferris wheel than a carousel when you 长时间折腾, which utilizes different muscle recruitment patterns and motor planning from when you pitch.

So 在 light of all our recent research on motor control, neuromuscular planning, and specificity of training, it would appear 长时间折腾ing does not support improving your mechanics.

我从精英级别投球的经验中知道,一遍又一遍地重复自己的机制的能力是最受追捧的技能之一,它使精英与其他人脱颖而出。 Remember my first point above, 长时间折腾 is important, but it is not because it helps with your mechanics or encourages repeating your delivery.


When our 长时间折腾 programs were originally being developed, one of the first questions that we sought to answer was what happens to the forces on your body as you throw from certain distances.  从以上信息我们知道您有运动学上的变化,但是对身体的动力呢? Fleisig博士还研究了上述研究中观察到的对身体的作用力。

长时间折腾 forces在180英尺处长时间折腾会明显增加肘内翻扭矩和肩部内部旋转扭矩,这实际上是造成肩部和肘部受伤的两种力,尤其是汤米·约翰伤。

我们知道,投球时每次投球都会给身体带来最大的压力。 长时间抛到180英尺及更大的距离比起堆土墩增加了更大的压力。 This is one of the main reasons that the criteria for an 在jured 播放器 to start throwing off the mound is only 120 feet.  在120英尺处,观察到的力类似于俯仰。 因此,如果您可以扔到120英尺高,则从技术上讲,您可以应付扔掉土堆的压力。

Athletes can handle the stress observed during 长时间折腾ing to 180 feet and beyond, but for how long and at what consequence?  我与Fleisig博士和Andrews博士讨论了这个概念,所用的类比令人震惊–您可以观察到一群小联盟的年龄较大的孩子每天抽一包烟,在小联盟中他们都不会患肺癌,但是有一天可能会。 从长远来看,我们对他们做什么?

意识到由小联盟和美国棒球协会制定的球场计数准则旨在通过避免过度使用来防止受伤。 该方程式中还应包括长至180英尺及以上的抛掷。 If you want to decrease you chances of getting 在jured 通过 5x, you need to not pitch or 长时间折腾 for 4 months out of the year.

There is a time and place for 长时间折腾, but this needs to be treated like pitching and considered 在 the overall equation for overuse.


To me, the most 在teresting part of the studies from Dr. Fleisig and ASMI is when they analyzed maximum distance 长时间折腾ing.  除了分析您从特定距离投掷时的生物力学如何变化外,他们还尽可能评估简单投掷的生物力学。



这导致肘内翻扭矩和肩部内部旋转扭矩均增加了10%。 So while 长时间折腾ing to 180 feet showed an 在crease 在 torque to your shoulder and elbow, these forces went up dramatically when throwing for maximum distance.

There is a risk / reward equation with 长时间折腾ing to 180 feet, but this equation appears to heavily lean towards the risk when throwing further.


我写这篇文章的原因很简单– there is no such thing as the best baseball 长时间折腾 program.  每个人都想要一个,但事实并非如此’t exist.  每个人都是不同的,包括他们的身体类型,大小,年龄,经验和技工。 Recommending one generic 长时间折腾 program for everyone seems overly simplified.  虽然它可能会帮助一小部分人,但看来可能会伤害更大的一部分。 这就是为什么我发布的康复计划似乎如此基础的原因。

Now that you understand some of the finer points of 长时间折腾 programs, I hope this allows you to understand that the best 长时间折腾 program needs to be 在dividualized.  You shouldn’仅仅因为某个大联盟在做某项程序,就应该这样做,因为它是为您专门开发的,并结合了精心设计的手臂护理和力量与调理程序。

To follow this up, I will write an 文章 soon on what I believe 长时间折腾 is actually doing and why it may be beneficial to 在clude 在 baseball training programs, if designed appropriately.


24 回覆
  1. Joey Colosi
    乔伊·科洛西 说:

    迈克,我’m a college pitcher and my coach tells us to throw as hard as we can during 长时间折腾 up to as far as 275 feet, I was always told that 长时间折腾 should be long easy tossesjust to really stretch out the arm, not throwing 100% every throw. Is there any 在put I could have as to throwing your hardest during month toss?

  2. KoreAmBear
    KoreAmBear 说:

    Last season I saw Clayton Kershaw doing 长时间折腾 for like 10 minutes before the game. He wound up throwing a ball like he was throwing from the mound on a line from about center field to AJ Ellis at the right field flag pole. It was amazing. But wouldn’在比赛中让他很快失望吗?

  3. Jason Robinson
    杰森·罗宾逊(Jason Robinson) 说:

    嘿,迈克。一世’在团队PT中与不同级别的投掷器一起工作。感谢您将此信息放在那里。我喜欢你没有’不要将任何特定的程序扔到公交车下面。如此众多的因素导致任何程序的成功与失败。我觉得教练和康复专业人士似乎不得不选择任何一方“long toss” or “short toss”。我一直在为个性化程序敲鼓。不幸的是,很多时候我们处于需要为教练或团队提供通用程序的位置,而程序设计的独特性和个性化却丢失了。保持良好的工作。

    杰森·罗宾逊(Jason Robinson),PT,SCS,PES,CSCS

  4. Matt
    马特 说:

    嗨,迈克,很棒的文章。一世 ’ve heard many different opinions on 长时间折腾, and this has helped me. With that being said, to 在crease stamina of a pitcher 在 a 7 day rotation (a college starting pitcher), would you recommend 长时间折腾ing to around 180 feet between starts and bullpen sessions? Maybe even twice a week?


    • RBI
      印度储备银行 说:


    • Steve
      史蒂夫 说:

      我是骨科运动专家,我与中学球员,旅行队以及主要联赛的球员一起工作。本文绝对正确。直到您通过认证或除“player” that likes or dislikes certain things, I suggest you do your homework before commenting like that. For example, the 长时间折腾 does not necessarily build strength 在 the arm. Strength programs and conditioning programs are what does that. It is correct it can build stamina. I have seen many 在juries and have performed rehab for them to get 播放器s back 在to playing again. Everything 在 this 文章 is correct. I say that because a lot of it he states it is his opinion or it may not be the only answer. These are studies which are done constantly throughout sports and these things change again and again. For someone to respond the way you did just goes to show how immature and uneducated you are on understanding the research and studies being done 在 the sport. Go read a book.

  5. 搬家公司评论
    搬家公司评论 说:


    看看我的网站 搬家公司评论

  6. Jhon

    投手非常主观,重要的是要考虑投手的角色(起跑,缓解),这也取决于投手在训练计划中的哪一部分。在淡季期间,投手肯定应该在6到8周内停止投掷,这取决于他们在赛季中投掷了多少。它几乎没有变量来建立良好的投掷程序。淡季投掷计划应首先加强肩膀锻炼计划,释放软组织以保持关节运动范围,他们在季前开始前的5至6周投掷。我建议在淡季投掷计划的中期阶段投掷尽可能长的掷球(每周3至4次),并开始减少季前训练开始时的投掷天数,以减少1或2天取决于投手的角色。我向年轻的投手推荐一件事,即他们不应该在同一天投球并担任另一职位。.如果想在游戏中待久,请保存子弹..每天努力工作,但连保证都没有! !

  7. Bill Schiller
    比尔·席勒 说:

    Mike; As a former college coach who is still pitching at age 59, I can say without hesitation that nothing 在creases 手臂力量 like throwing batting practice and nothing causes more problems than excessive long distance 长时间折腾ing. Long tossing is useful 在 stretching the muscles required 在 the throwing process, but is as useless as a marathon runner sprinting hard for long 在tervals during a actual race.

  8. Brock
    布罗克 说:

    需要指出的一些要点是,但整个细分市场“长时间投掷不会增加手臂力量”海事组织,这是非常可怜的。它’s akin to saying “蹲着会使你变得虚弱”在下蹲训练后立即进行测试。当然有“weaker” – fatigue is present.
    另外,一些批评似乎是关于长计划的实施,而不是长计划本身。同样,这与那些认为举重是“bad” with no context.

  9. Randy
    兰迪 说:


  10. William Hewlett
    威廉·休利特 说:

    如果建造“arm speed” would that result 在 an 在crease 在 velocity? I would think that 手臂速度 is everything 在 velocity. Starting, Speed and Explosive strength would be 在creased 通过 any exercise that promotes “arm speed” correct…。?我要离开这里吗?

    “Long tossing may improve something else, such as muscular endurance or 手臂速度, but there is a fine line between building speed and endurance and overloading and causing fatigue.”

  11. Beau
    花花公子 说:


    正确点这篇文章!本文中最重要的评论之一,“throwing does not 在crease 手臂力量.”让头顶上的运动员参加专门针对ROM的维护计划,伸展运动和力量训练对于预防伤害至关重要。


  12. Jeff L.
    杰夫·L。 说:

    Great 文章 Mike! Thanks for all your work on this site! Any thoughts on the appropriate age to start 长时间折腾ing and a good starting distance for younger 播放器s?